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Machine learning versus AI: what’s the difference?

Thanks to the likes of Google, Amazon, and Facebook, the terms artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning have become much more widespread than ever before. They are often used interchangeably and promise all sorts from smarter home appliances to robots taking our jobs.

The UK has a new AI centre – so when robots kill, we know who to blame The UK has a new AI centre – so when robots kill, we know who to blameArtificial Intelligence 12 Oct 2016.

But while AI and machine learning are very much related, they are not quite the same thing. AI is a branch of computer science attempting to build machines capable of intelligent behaviour, while 
Stanford University defines machine learning as “the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed”. 

You need AI researchers to build the smart machines, but you need machine learning experts to make them truly intelligent.

Source: Machine learning versus AI: what’s the difference?

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Re-reading is inefficient. Here are 8 tips for studying smarter. • ©[vox.com]

We know from surveys that a majority of students, when they study, they typically re-read assignments and notes. Most students say this is their number one go-to strategy.

We know, however, from a lot of research, that this kind of repetitive recycling of information is not an especially good way to learn or create more permanent memories. Our studies of Washington University students, for instance, show that when they re-read a textbook chapter, they have absolutely no improvement in learning over those who just read it once.

On your first reading of something, you extract a lot of understanding. But when you do the second reading, you read with a sense of ‘I know this, I know this.’ So basically, you’re not processing it deeply, or picking more out of it. Often, the re-reading is cursory — and it’s insidious, because this gives you the illusion that you know the material very well, when in fact there are gaps.”

via Re-reading is inefficient. Here are 8 tips for studying smarter. • ©[vox.com].

Peter Gray’s new book says kids need free play to thrive – ©[bc.edu]

Playing with other children, away from adults, is how children learn to make their own decisions, control their emotions and impulses, see from others’ perspectives, negotiate differences with others, and make friends,” says Gray, an expert on the evolution of play and its vital role in child development. “In short, play is how children learn to take control of their lives.”

All children are born with an innate curiosity, playfulness, sociability and deep desire to learn, but at some point after they enter school, what was once fun and engaging begins to feel forced, he explains. And, anxiety and stress levels among youths are at an all-time high: they are bogged down with homework, over-scheduled with extracurricular activities, deprived of free play, and faced with the pressures of getting into a top college.

via Peter Gray’s new book says kids need free play to thrive.

4 Robots That Teach Children Science and Math in Engaging Ways [scientificamerican.com]

Robots can capture a child’s imagination like no other tool by creating a fun, physical learning process. With robots, kids learn programming via interactive play by moving a robot in various sequences and using intuitive, visual programming on a computer screen. The children also learn STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) by watching and interacting with robots that demonstrate the practical results of the day’s lesson. “Kids recognize when they are learning something themselves—robots give them that,” says Larry Johnson, CEO of the New Media Consortium, a research organization that specializes in educational technology. Robots are proving to be valuable educational tools from the lower grades all the way up to graduate school. “Building and programming these devices is part of becoming a creative science and engineering kind of person,” he adds.

via 4 Robots That Teach Children Science and Math in Engaging Ways – Scientific American.

Fewer high school graduates enroll in college after graduation [impactlab.net]

The proportion of high school students in the U.S. who go on to college rose regularly for decades but now appears to be declining.

Last October, just 65.9 percent of people who had graduated from high school the previous spring had enrolled in college, the Bureau of Labor Statistics said this week. That was down from 66.2 percent the previous year and was the lowest figure in a decade. The high point came in 2009, when 70.1 percent of new graduates had gone on to college.

“Falling college enrollment indicates that upward mobility may become more difficult for working-class and disadvantaged high school graduates,” said Heidi Shierholz, an economist with the Economic Policy Institute in Washington. “It’s another part of the long-term scarring process of the Great Recession that has been partly hidden.”

via Fewer high school graduates enroll in college after graduation | Impact Lab.

How to Build a Better Educational System: Jigsaw Classrooms [apa.org]

In the early 1970s, in the wake of the civil rights movement, educators were faced with a social dilemma that had no obvious solution. All over the country, well-intentioned efforts to desegregate America\’s public schools were leading to serious problems. Ethnic minority children, most of whom had previously attended severely under-funded schools, found themselves in classrooms composed predominantly of more privileged White children. This created a situation in which students from affluent backgrounds often shone brilliantly while students from impoverished backgrounds often struggled. Of course, this difficult situation seemed to confirm age-old stereotypes: that Blacks and Latinos are stupid or lazy and that Whites are pushy and overly competitive. The end result was strained relations between children from different ethnic groups and widening gaps in the academic achievement of Whites and minorities.

Drawing on classic psychological research on how to reduce tensions between competing groups (e.g., see Allport, 1954; Sherif, 1958; see also Pettigrew, 1998), Elliot Aronson and colleagues realized that one of the major reasons for this problem was the competitive nature of the typical classroom.

via How to Build a Better Educational System: Jigsaw Classrooms.

Rendering unto Caesar … | Rendre à César …

See on Scoop.itThings I Grab (Here and There): THgsIGrbHT

One (supposedly) knows what follows: Giving back to Caesar all the things that are Caesar’s. It usually goes without saying  to give credit to whomever deserves it. Though … does it really?

plerudulier‘s insight:

D’aucuns (je suppose) savent ce qui suit: Rendre à César ce qui lui appartient. Ça va généralement de soi de rendre le mérite d’une chose à son véritable auteur. Quoique … vraiment?

See on plerudulier.wordpress.com

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